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The other rotates wommen eight months among finishes of the three thousands. They then moved up to reliable New York to do their required two years of often service. A child member while wearing a Inexpensive Nations helmet. Worthwhile land mines throughout the any are still a inexpensive concern. The Arts and Thousands Section for the Issues.
Tito nationalized businesses and industry in a manner similar to the Soviet system; however, Tito's Yugoslavia managed to maintain autonomy from the Soviet Union. He ruled with an iron fist, outlawing free speech and suppressing opposition to the regime. While ethnic and regional conflicts continued among the six republics Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Mowtar, and MontenegroTito suppressed them before they became a threat to the unity of the country. Tito died in and his government was Sexy locals in dunedin by another wmoen regime.
Power rotated within Marrled state presidency whose members included one representative MMarried each of the six republics and two provinces. This system contributed to growing political wmen, as did food shortages, economic hardship, and the example of crumbing regimes in other Eastern European countries. By the late s, there was a growing desire in most of the republics for more autonomy and democratization. Inhowever, the nationalist Slobodan Milosevic won the presidency in Serbia. Milosevic, with his vision of a "Greater Married women in mostar free of all other ethnicities, manipulated the media and played on Serbians' fears and nationalist sentiments.
Other Yugoslav republics held their first free elections in A nationalist party won motsar Croatia, and womne Muslim party won in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The republics of Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in Because of its strong military and small population of Marrid, Milosevic allowed Slovenia to secede with little resistance. The Croatian declaration of independence, however, was met with a war that lasted into In Bosnia, the Muslim party united with the Bosnian Croats and, after a public referendum, declared independence from Serbia in The Serbs in the republic's parliament withdrew in protest, setting up their own legislature.
Bosnia's independence was recognized internationally, and the Muslim president promised that Bosnian Serbs would have equal rights. Those Serbs, however, supported by Milosevic, did not agree to negotiations. The Serbian army forced the Muslims out of northern and eastern Bosnia, the areas nearest to Serbia. They used brutal tactics, destroying villages and terrorizing civilians. Bosnians attempted to defend themselves but were overpowered by the Serbians' superior military technology and equipment. One of the tactics Serb forces used throughout the war was the systematic rape of Bosnian women. Commanders often ordered their soldiers to rape entire villages.
This atrocity has left permanent scars on much of the population. In Novemberthe presidents of Serbia and Croatia decided to divide Bosnia between them. This resulted in increased fighting between Croats and Muslims as well as between Muslims and Serbs. In that month, six thousand United Nations UN troops were deployed in Bosnia as peacekeepers and to ensure the delivery of aid shipments. The UN troops were powerless to act, however, and the atrocities continued. Many cities were in a state of siege, including Sarajevo, Srebrenica, and Gorazde. There were extreme shortages of food, water, fuel, and other necessities. Those who chose to flee often ended up in refugee camps with dreadful living conditions; the unlucky were sent to Serb-run concentration camps where beatings, torture, and mass murder were common.
Inthe UN declared six "safe havens" in Bosnia where fighting was supposed to cease and the population would be protected. This policy proved ineffective, as war continued unabated in all six areas. After a Serb attack on a Sarajevo market that resulted in the death of sixty-eight civilians, the UN decided to step in more forcefully. In August a peace conference was held in the United States, resulting in the Dayton Peace Accords, an agreement that Bosnia-Herzegovina would revert to the boundaries in place before the fighting began and that the country would be divided into two parts: The NATO troops are still a significant presence in Bosnia, with approximately thirty-four thousand in the area.
The peace is tenuous, however, and recent fighting between Muslims and Serbs in nearby Kosovo has exacerbated ethnic tensions. National identity for Bosnians is inextricably tied to ethnic and religious identity. The majority of Bosnians are Muslim, and their culture bears many traces of the Turkish civilization that predominated in the region for centuries. Bosnian Muslims tend to identify themselves in opposition to Serbia and its long-standing domination of the region. Bosnian Serbs, who are primarily Eastern Orthodox and share a culture with their Serb neighbors to the south, identify less as Bosnians and primarily as Serbs.
Croats, who are mostly Roman Catholic, distinguish themselves from both Serbs and Bosnians. Before the civil war forced them into separate camps, all three groups also identified strongly as Bosnian. The entire Balkan region has historically been called the powder keg of Europe because of volatile relations both among local groups and with outside forces.
Do you know a marriage agent in Bosnia? - Bosnia and Herzegovina Forum
Bosnia, however, has a long history of relatively peaceful coexistence among its three main ethnic groups. Before the s, intermarriage was common, as were mixed communities. When Milosevic rose to power in Yugoslavia inmoatar extremist politics stirred latent distrust among the ethnic groups. When Bosnia declared independence inhis government began a campaign of "ethnic cleansing" that has left millions dead, wounded, or homeless. While it is iin Serbs, with the backing of Milosevic, who have been responsible for most of the atrocities, Mostarr also have persecuted Bosnian Muslims.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use Marred Space Approximately 42 percent of the population lives in towns or cities. Sarajevo, near the center of the country in a valley of Married women in mostar Dinaric Alps, is the capital and largest city. Once a cultural center and tourist destination it was the site of the Winter Olympicsit has been devastated by the jostar war. Before the war, it was a vibrant, cosmopolitan mixture of the old and the new, with skyscrapers and modern buildings standing alongside ancient Turkish mosques and marketplaces.
Today many of these buildings are in rubble, and Margied and electricity are in short supply. Despite Married women in mostar desperate situation, Sarajevo has taken in many refugees from other parts of the country. Even amid the destruction, however, there is evidence of Sarajevo's glorious past. Most food must be imported because farming does not meet subsistence needs. Husrev-Bey mosque, which dates back to the sixteenth century. The religious architecture is varied and impressive; in addition to mosques, there are several Orthodox churches, a cathedral, and a Sephardic Jewish synagogue. The city also mostad a history museum and a national art gallery.
Mostar, the largest city in the Herzegovina region, also has been devastated by the civil war. Other major cities include Banja Luka, Zenica, and Tuzla. Before the war, housing in the cities consisted primarily of concrete apartment buildings. Many of those mistar were destroyed during the war, and despite efforts mstar rebuilding, mosyar remain unlivable. People have been forced into crowded living situations with little privacy. In rural areas, which are much less densely populated, the effects of war have been less extreme. Most of those houses are small structures of stone or wood. Before the war, the majority of them were equipped with electricity and mostat water.
Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Bosnian food has been influenced by both Turkish and Eastern European cuisine. Grilled meat mostqr popular, as are cabbage-based dishes. Bosanski Ionac is a cabbage and meat stew. Cevapcici are lamb sausages that often are eaten with a flat bread called somun. Pastries, both sweet and savory, are common; burek and pida layered cheese modtar meat pieszeljanica Marriec piemoetar sirnica cheese pie are served as main dishes. Baklava, a Turkish pastry made of phyllo dough layered with nuts and honey, is a popular dessert, as is an apple cake called tufahije. Kefir, a thin yogurt drink, is popular, as are Turkish coffee and a kind of tea called salep.
Homemade brandy, called rakija, is a popular alcoholic drink. Alcohol use is down since the rise in Muslim influence, and in certain areas of the country drinking has been prohibited. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. For Bosnian Muslims, the end of Ramadan a month of fasting from sunrise to sunset is celebrated with a large family meal and with Turkish-style sweets and pastries. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox believers celebrate Easter with special breads and elaborately decorated eggs. Christmas is an occasion for special family meals among the Christian population. Bosnia is the second poorest republic of the former Yugoslavia.
The agricultural sector, which accounts for 19 percent of the gross domestic product GDPdoes not produce enough Carpets and wool rugs produced by artisans in Sarajevo. Industrial production fell 80 percent between and because of the civil war, and while it recovered somewhat between andthe GDP is still significantly lower than it was in The unemployment rate is between 35 and 40 percent. Bosnia receives large amounts of money in the form of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid. In Junea new currency, the convertible mark, replaced the dinar, which had been completely devalued as a result of inflation.
Land Tenure and Property. Tito nationalized many of Yugoslavia's farms into collectives. This proved unsuccessful, and he modified the system by giving farmers more control over production. Today, many farms are privately owned. While 90 percent of the country's firms are private, the large government conglomerates are still in place. This has hindered progress toward privatization, as has widespread corruption. Crops produced for domestic sale include corn, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, and fruits. The war has caused severe shortages of food, electricity, and other goods. There is an active black market on which some otherwise unavailable goods can be bought for exorbitant prices.
The main industries are mining coal, iron ore, leadvehicle assembly, textiles, domestic appliances, oil refining, and military supplies. Much of the production capacity has been damaged or shut down since the early s. There is a negative growth rate of 5 to 10 percent in the country's industries. The main imports are raw materials, petroleum-based fuels, and consumer goods. The primary exports are machinery, clothing and footwear, and chemicals. Other republics of the former Yugoslavia and Western European nations are the main trading partners. During the war, Serbia and Croatia placed strict restrictions on trade with Bosnia, further damaging the economy. Under communism, the composition of the workforce shifted from an agricultural base to an industrial one.
The more desirable jobs in government often were obtained through connections. Today, as the economy is beginning to recover from the civil war, jobs are difficult to come by in many fields, and connections are still useful. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Before World War II, peasants formed the base of society, with a small upper class composed of government workers, professionals, merchants, and artisans and an even smaller middle class. Under communism, education, party membership, and rapid industrialization offered possibilities for upward mobility.
The majority of the people had a comfortable lifestyle. The civil war drastically decreased the overall standard of living, and shortages and inflation have made necessary items unaffordable or unavailable. This situation has created more extreme differences between the rich and the poor, as those who have access to goods can hoard them and sell them for exorbitant rates. In general, the war stripped even the richest citizens of their wealth and left the majority of the population destitute. Symbols of Social Stratification. Under Tito, Yugoslavia had a higher standard of living than did most countries in Eastern Europe; it was not uncommon for people in the cities to have cars, televisions, and other goods and appliances.
The upper classes and higher-echelon government workers had more possessions and a higher standard of living. Today, luxuries of any sort are rare. People generally dress in Western-style clothing. Muslim women can be distinguished by their attire; while they do not wear the full body covering common in other Islamic countries, they usually cover their heads with scarves. Traditional Serbian and Croatian costumes include caps, white blouses, and elaborately embroidered vests; they can be distinguished by the type of embroidery and other small variations.
These outfits are worn only for special occasions such as weddings and festivals. The legislature is bicameral. The presidency rotates every eight months among members of the three groups. These three presidents are elected by popular vote for four-year terms. Leadership and Political Officials. Since the war, politics has splintered along ethnic lines. More than twenty political parties are represented in the government, most of them identified as Bosnian Muslim, Serb, or Croat. Bosnians are currently extremely wary of trusting a leader from a different ethnic group to represent their interests. Social Problems and Control. The high rate of unemployment has led to an increase in crimes such as petty theft and carjacking.
Unexploded land mines throughout the country are still a major concern. The Federation and the Republic have separate legal systems with trial and appellate courts. One of the primary concerns today is prosecuting war criminals. An international war tribunal at the Hague has tried some perpetrators, but many others remain at large, including Slobodan Milosevic. The Federation Army consists of separate Croatian and Bosniac elements. The Bosniac Army the official army of the Federation consists of forty thousand troops; the Croatians have sixteen thousand. The Army of the Serb Republic is composed solely of Bosnian Serbs and numbers around thirty thousand. Both federation and republican forces have air and air defense components that are subordinate to ground forces.
A child playing while wearing a United Nations helmet. Many schools were closed during the war, leaving children with no access to education. Social Welfare and Change Programs Tito instituted a welfare system that provided for the poor, the elderly, and the mentally and physically disabled.
His government also guaranteed women maternity leave and paid leave when their children were sick. In independent Bosnia, the Muslim, Croat, and Serbian administrations provide aid for their respective populations. In the s, the majority of the money for social services came from foreign aid organizations rather than from the government. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations A number of international humanitarian groups have provided aid to help the country recover from the civil war.
One of the largest of these groups Guy seeking single woman in split the International Committee of the Red Cross, which, in addition to providing aid and aid workers, investigated Serbian violations of the Geneva Conventions during the war. Other active groups include Christian Relief, World Vision, the International A building with arched double doors in Mostar, the largest city in the Herzegovina region. Mostar was badly damaged by the civil war. Medical Corps, and numerous religious, governmental, and humanitarian associations. Women are responsible Married women in mostar all domestic tasks, including cooking, cleaning, and child rearing.
Women who work outside the home generally have lower-paying and lower-status jobs than men do. Since the economic devastation of the civil war, men are more likely to occupy the few jobs that are available, and more women have returned to the traditional roles of housewife and mother. Women are more equally represented in agriculture than they are in other fields, and the majority of elementary schoolteachers are women. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Bosnia has a patriarchal tradition in which women are expected to be subservient to men.
Both the Eastern European and Islamic traditions have contributed to this situation. Under Tito's administration, women were given complete civil and political rights. Educational and lifestyle opportunities have increased significantly since that time, although there are still disparities. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Marriages are not arranged, and love matches are the norm. Inbefore the civil war, 40 percent of the marriages registered involved ethnically mixed couples. Since that time, mixed marriages have become extremely rare. Despite Muslim sanctioning of polygamy, the custom was practiced in only one region of the country and currently is not practiced at all.
It used to be customary for a bride's parents to give the couple a specially woven dowry rug containing the couple's initials and the wedding date. Their first daughter, Naomi, was born there in Toccoa. They then moved up to western New York to do their required two years of home service. The family ended up staying three years. During this time Esther was born. The Shadys loved being in Russellville. Libby began to interact with some of women of the church and we were both asked to teach some extension classes in Sarajevo. During this time Libby was not feeling well. We assumed it was some bug she had picked up. She began to get really weak and so we took her to a local doctor.
God was near the whole time. Naomi and Esther were 11 and 9 years old at that time. Viviane and Matt had been dorm parents at Dalat in Penang, Malaysia for six years before he was diagnosed with cancer, Viviane said. Melanie, Maria, and Maxwell and my two: